For the values that characterize Western thought are not self-executing.
Rivalling economics as a discipline during the century was political science. Domestic politics is generally the most common field of study; its subfields include public opinionelectionsnational governmentand state, local, or regional government.
Comparative politics focuses on politics within countries often grouped into world regions and analyzes similarities and differences between countries. International relations considers the political relationships and interactions between countries, including the causes of warthe formation of foreign policyinternational political economyand the structures that increase or decrease the policy options available to governments.
International relations is organized as a separate department in some universities. Political theory includes classical political philosophy and contemporary theoretical perspectives e.
Public administration studies the role of the bureaucracy. It is the field most oriented toward practical applications within political science and is often organized as a separate department that prepares students for careers in the civil service.
Public law studies constitutionslegal systems, civil rightsand criminal justice now increasingly its own discipline. Public policy examines the passage and implementation of all types of government policies, particularly those related to civil rights, defense, health, educationeconomic growthurban renewalregional development, and environmental protection.
Historical development Ancient influences Analyses of politics appeared in ancient cultures in works by various thinkers, including Confucius — bc in China and Kautilya flourished bc in India. But the fullest explication of politics has been in the West. He distinguished political systems by the number of persons ruling one, few, or many and by whether the form was legitimate rulers governing in the interests of all or corrupt rulers governing in their own interests.
Legitimate systems included monarchy rule by onearistocracy rule by the fewand polity rule by the manywhile corresponding corrupt forms were tyrannyoligarchyand democracy. Aristotle considered democracy to be the worst form of government, though in his classification it meant mob rule.
The best form of government, a polity, was, in contemporary terms, akin to an efficient, stable democracy. Aristotle presciently noted that a polity functions best if the middle class is large, a point confirmed by modern empirical findings.
Plato and Aristotle focused on perfecting the polis city-statea tiny political entity, which for the Greeks meant both society and political system. This shift required a new understanding of politics.
Hellenistic thinkers, especially the Stoicsasserted the existence of a natural law that applied to all human beings equally; this idea became the foundation of Roman legalism and Christian notions of equality see Stoicism.
Thus, the Roman orator Marcus Tullius Cicero —43 bcwho was strongly influenced by the Stoicswas noteworthy for his belief that all human beings, regardless of their wealth or citizenship, possessed an equal moral worth.
Early Christian thinkers, such as St.
With this came an otherworldly disdain for politics. Translations of Aristotle in Spain under the Moors revitalized European thought after about Aquinas took from Aristotle the idea that humans are both rational and social, that states occur naturally, and that government can improve humans spiritually.
Thus, Aquinas favoured monarchy but despised tyranny, arguing that kingly authority should be limited by law and used for the common good.
The Italian poet and philosopher Dante — argued in De monarchia c. At the same time, the philosopher Marsilius of Padua c. For this, as well as for proposing that legislators be elected, Marsilius ranks as an important modernizer. An early Italian patriot, Machiavelli believed that Italy could be unified and its foreign occupiers expelled only by ruthless and single-minded princes who rejected any moral constraints on their power.
Machiavelli thus ranks alongside Aristotle as a founder of political science. The English philosopher Thomas Hobbes — also placed power at the centre of his political analysis. In Leviathan; or, The Matter, Form, and Power of a Commonwealth, Ecclesiastical and Civilcompleted near the end of the English Civil Wars —51Hobbes outlined, without reference to an all-powerful God, how humans, endowed with a natural right to self-preservation but living in an anarchic state of naturewould be driven by fear of violent death to form a civil society and submit to a single sovereign authority a monarch to ensure their peace and security through a social contract —an actual or hypothetical agreement between citizens and their rulers that defines the rights and duties of each.
Montesquieu —a more pragmatic French philosopher, contributed to modern comparative politics with his The Spirit of Laws Montesquieu also produced an innovative analysis of governance that assigned to each form of government an animating principle—for example, republics are based on virtue, monarchies on honour, and despotisms on fear.
The Scottish economist and philosopher Adam Smith —90 is considered the founder of classical economic liberalism. In An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nationshe argued that the role of the state should be restricted primarily to enforcing contracts in a free market.
In contrast, the classical conservatism of the English parliamentarian Edmund Burke —97 maintained that established values and institutions were essential elements of all societies and that revolutions that sought to destroy such values e.
Burke thus introduced an important psychological or cultural insight:Search the world's information, including webpages, images, videos and more. Google has many special features to help you find exactly what you're looking for. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (UK: / ˈ r uː s oʊ /, US: / r uː ˈ s oʊ /; French: [ʒɑ̃ʒak ʁuso]; 28 June – 2 July ) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and yunusemremert.com in Geneva, his political philosophy influenced the progress of the Enlightenment throughout Europe, as well as aspects of the French Revolution and the development of modern political and educational thought.
The Political Science Books Top The Political Science Books Top list presents the best works of political theory, comparative politics, international relations, and public law.
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The Political Science Books Top The Political Science Books Top list presents the best works of political theory, comparative .